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1931 Dull and Cool. Very Poor Late Summer.
In the year that an earthquake, measuring 7.9 on the Richter Scale devastated Napier (New Zealand), and an earthquake also flattened Managua (Nicaragua), killing 2,500 people. In Britain the strongest known earthquake, measuring 6.1 on the Richter Scale and centred under Dogger Bank in the North Sea, caused much structural damage. In America, the 'Star-Spangled Banner' was adopted as the National Anthem of the United States.
Weather Notes:-
3rd March - Minimum temperature of minus 17°C. reported from Braemar (Highland).
July/August - Yangtze River flood in China affected an estimated 51 million people and led, directly or indirectly, to the deaths of 3.7 million people.
8th August - Boston (Lincolnshire) had over 150mm of rain. Other heavy falls of rain during this very thundery month brought much crop damage and flooding to many parts of England and Wales. 

In London...
 Temperature  9.8°C   Rainfall 605.2 mm   Warmest  25.1°C
 Sunshine 1265 hrs      Coldest  -7.7°C

JanuaryDry and rather sunny with below average temperatures. 
 Mean Temperature   3.8°C    
 Monthly Highest  11.4°C   Total Rain   27 mm
 Monthly Lowest  -3.0°C  Total Sun   54 hrs

The first half of January was fairly dry and cold with some frosty nights but sunny spells by days. A little snow occurred, and the temperature on the 8th only reached 1.0°C. Around mid month the weather turned much milder, and the maximum temperature on both the 16th and 17th was above 11°C. The remainder of the month was changeable, but rain was mainly light. On the 23rd, over 7mm of rain was recorded, but the following day had unbroken sunshine.

February -  Slightly below average sunshine and rainfall, with temperatures close to normal.
 Mean Temperature   4.2°C    
 Monthly Highest  12.1°C   Total Rain   37 mm
 Monthly Lowest  -2.3°C  Total Sun   60 hrs

There were no prolonged spells of dry weather during this changeable month, but rainfall was generally light. some wintry precipitation occurred early in February, and the maximum temperature on the 5th was only 2.7°C. Temperatures were mostly close to normal, with few mild or cold days, although there were several frosty nights. On the 25th, the afternoon temperature reached 12°C', and in the unsettled end to February, nearly 9mm of rain was measured on the 27th.

March - Very dry and cold with above average sunshine
 Mean Temperature   5.0°C    
 Monthly Highest  18.8°C   Total Rain    8 mm
 Monthly Lowest  -7.7°C  Total Sun   123 hrs

The early part of March was mostly cold with occasional sleet or snow. On the 9th, it snowed for much of the day,  giving the equivalent of 4mm of rain,  and a maximum temperature of only minus 0.4°C. Around 5cm of fresh snow, combined with clear skies, produced a severe frost on the following night. It slowly became warmer,  and in a month when measurable rain only fell on 5 days, dry weather prevailed. On the 20th, the temperature almost reached 19°C.
April - Very wet, dull and rather cold
 Mean Temperature   8.5°C    
 Monthly Highest  16.6°C   Total Rain    93 mm
 Monthly Lowest   0.5°C  Total Sun   113 hrs

There was a ground frost on the first morning of April, but then extensive cloud cover and very changeable weather helped to keep nights frost free. On the 3rd, over 16mm of rain fell, and there were several fall of rain above 10mm during the month. A brief warmer and brighter interlude occurred during the second week, and on the 11th, the temperature rose above 16°C., However, days were mostly rather cold, and the maximum on the 18th was only 5.3°C. 

May - Dull and rather wet with temperatures close to normal.
 Mean Temperature  12.5°C    
 Monthly Highest  23.1°C   Total Rain    63 mm
 Monthly Lowest   4.4°C  Total Sun   159 hrs

The beginning of the month was very cool, and the maximum temperature on the 3rd was only 9.0°. Temperatures then climbed close to normal but the weather was changeable. Much of the rain was light, but on the 23rd, nearly 12mm fell. During the last week of May there was a short spell of fine weather. On the 25th it was sunny for most of the day, and on the following day the afternoon temperature reached 23°C. The rest of the month became unsettled and cooler.
June - Dull with temperatures slightly above average and rainfall slightly below normal
 Mean Temperature  16.1°C    
 Monthly Highest  25.1°C   Total Rain    42 mm
 Monthly Lowest   7.1°C  Total Sun   174 hrs

There was plenty of dry weather during June but skies were often rather cloudy. There were a few unsettled spells, and on the 5th nearly 11mm of rain fell. Temperatures were mostly near, or rather above, normal, but on the 16th the maximum was only 14.3°C. During the last week of June there was more in way of sunshine and some higher temperatures. On the 27th it was sunny throughout the day, and on the 28th the afternoon temperature exceeded 25°C.

July - Dull and rather cool with above average rainfall. 
 Mean Temperature  16.8°C    
 Monthly Highest  24.5°C   Total Rain    74 mm
 Monthly Lowest   9.8°C  Total Sun   151 hrs

The month was unsettled, but rain was often light and drizzly and  although skies were  frequently cloudy, there were also many dry days. A few fine, pleasantly warm days occurred, and on the 3rd there was unbroken sunshine with the temperature rising above 24°C. The most changeable weather occurred during the second half of the month and it was cool at times. The temperature on the 20th only reached 17.2°C., and on the 25th over 24mm of rain was measured.

August - Very wet, dull and cool.
 Mean Temperature  15.7°C    
 Monthly Highest  25.1°C   Total Rain   123 mm
 Monthly Lowest   6.6°C  Total Sun   136 hrs

The first few day of August were mostly rather warm and humid. On the 4th, the afternoon temperature rose above 25°C. but some violent thunderstorms developed. On the 5th, over 28mm of rain was recorded. More severe thunderstorms occurred on the 14th. Towards the end of the month it became  particularly cool, and on the 24th the temperature only reached 13.7°C. The 29th was sunny all day, but temperatures remained below the late August average. 
September - Very cool and dull with slightly above average rainfall. 
 Mean Temperature  12.4°C    
 Monthly Highest  20.1°C   Total Rain   53 mm
 Monthly Lowest   3.3°C  Total Sun   117 hrs

The first few days of September were cool and very showery. There were some heavy, thundery downpours, and on the 4th over 11mm of rain fell. The end of the opening week was dry with sunny periods but it stayed cool, especially at night. Temperatures briefly rose above normal towards the end of third week, and on the 19th the maximum exceeded 20°C. However, cool weather then returned, and on the 26th the highest temperature was only 12.6°C.
October - Very dry and cold with below average sunshine.
 Mean Temperature   9.3°C    
 Monthly Highest  18.4°C   Total Rain   17 mm
 Monthly Lowest  -3.6°C  Total Sun   90 hrs

The beginning of October was very mild with spells of sunshine. On the 2nd, the afternoon temperature rose above 18°C., and the following day was sunny. The weather then became changeable for a while, and on the 7th nearly 7mm of rain fell. High pressure then built across the country and no measurable rain fell between the 9th and the 27th. During the last 10 days of the month there were sharp frosts, and on the 27th the temperature failed to rise above 5.1°C.
November - Rather mild with below average rainfall and above normal sunshine. 
 Mean Temperature   7.9°C    
 Monthly Highest  16.1°C   Total Rain   54 mm
 Monthly Lowest  -0.1°C  Total Sun   59 hrs

The 1st of November was sunny, but the weather then became cloudier, very mild and windy. On the 3rd, the temperature rose above 16°C., but there were very strong winds, and on the 4th, a gust of 53kn occurred. On the 7th, nearly 13mm of rain fell, but although it stayed changeable, much of the rain was light. It was generally mild, and the only frost of the month occurred early on the 22nd. However, on the 29th the maximum temperature only reached 5.1°C.

December - Very dry and dull with above normal temperatures. 
 Mean Temperature   5.7°C    
 Monthly Highest  15.1°C   Total Rain   14 mm
 Monthly Lowest  -4.2°C  Total Sun   29 hrs

There was an unsettled start to this dry and largely anticyclonic month. On the 3rd, the temperature rose above 15°C., but on the 4th nearly 5mm of rain fell.  The 7th was a sunny day, but the weather often became dull and gloomy with weak fronts occasionally producing a little light rain or drizzle. There were some cold and misty days, and on the 19th the temperature only reached 1.4°C. There were sunny spells at the end of the month, but with overnight frosts.

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